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This paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining community in Ghana’s Upper East Region.
Located in Northwest Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, the City of Toledo identifies climate change as a matter of environmental, economic, and health concern. The city has a total population of 287,208 spread over 84 sq. miles. The city is built over a wetland area and ground saturation and stormwater overflow pose major threats to city infrastructure and health. Deteriorating water infrastructure is a major issue throughout the city and region. However, strong leadership by city staff has resulted in progressive action to improve water systems and increase public awareness across the region
Located on the north shore of Lake Superior, the City of Thunder Bay is a unique urban hub in an otherwise sparsely populated area. Mining and forestry are key economic drivers of the region. Over the past decade, the city has made strides to incorporate sustainability and climate mitigation into its corporate policies and since 2005, the EarthCare program has served as a collaboration between the Municipality and the community to move sustainability goals forward.
The City of Kingston is located on the north-east coast of Lake Ontario and at the head of the Saint Lawrence River. The city strives to become “Canada’s Most Sustainable City” and through the 2010 release of the Sustainable Kingston Plan, has developed sustainability goals for both the community and the corporation. In 2014, Kingston released a Climate Action Plan. While the plan primarily focuses on curbing Kingston’s greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing sustainability throughout the city, it also includes recommendations for how to make Kingston more resilient in the face of climate change.
The City of Flint is in the early stages of adaptation planning. Flint adopted its first comprehensive Master Plan in fifty years on October 28, 2013. As a follow up to this effort, the city is working to update its zoning code, Capital Improvement Plan (CIP), and other related plans and policies. Since 1960, the city has lost nearly half of its population and over 70,000 jobs. However, city planners and community stakeholders feel that Flint is ready to embrace wide reaching change and are eager to begin a process of rebuilding and visioning for a future that addresses systematic problems in place of quick-fix solutions.
Located at the southern reaches of the Great Lakes region in southern Ohio, the City of Dayton faces similar challenges to other ‘rust belt’ cities. Dayton’s population peaked in the 1960’s at approximately 260,000 and since then has declined to the current population of 141,527. Parts of the city have upwards of 30% vacancy rate. Despite these challenges, the city staff is determined and energized to develop a more sustainable city so that Dayton becomes a ‘city of choice’ for the region and beyond.
The City of Ann Arbor has a long history as a progressive city with strong community engagement. Despite this, the city faces challenges keeping the community informed of emerging programs and ongoing efforts due to the city’s many university students and other transient residents. Ann Arbor also faces the challenge that a significant percentage of property within the city limits falls under the public domain and is not subject to local taxes. Much of this public land also falls outside of the city’s regulatory jurisdiction
There is significant momentum behind natural gas extraction efforts in the United States, with many states viewing it as an opportunity to create jobs and foster economic growth. Natural gas extraction has also been championed as a way to move toward domestic energy security and a cleaner energy supply. First demonstrated in the 1940s, hydraulic fracturing—injecting fracturing fluids into the target formation at a force exceeding the parting pressure of the rock (shale) thus inducing a network of fractures through which oil or natural gas can flow to the wellbore—is now the predominant method used to extract natural gas in the United States.
Keywords: Fracking, hydraulic fracturing, oil or natural gas extraction, water quality, Graham Sustainability Institute, Michigan
This paper describes the specific activities undertaken as part of an integrated assessment on artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana.
An assessment of the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a metalloid in agricultural soils in 19 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana.